The impact of employee engagement on the job performance by the mediating role of creativity: The moderating role of leader-member exchange
AbstractPurpose- The objective of the study is to analyze the impact of employee engagement on the job performance in order to test whether creativity mediates the relationship between employee engagement and job performance as well as to analyze the moderating role of Leader-Member exchange (LMX). Design- The research sample consists of 150 respondents working in Advertising Agencies, IT Departments and Events management Organizations of twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad). The questionnaire included established measures related to employee engagement, job performance, creativity and LMX. Multiple regression and bootstrapping methods were employed in the analysis of the data. Findings- The findings showed a significant positive effect of employee engagement on job performance. Mediation analysis shows that creativity partially mediates the relationship between engagement and performance, while moderation analysis shows that LMX does not moderate the relationship between creativity and performance. Scope- The study extended previous research and the external validity of the findings were ensured by investigating the relationship between engagement and performance. It will help the policy managers to ensure the employee engagement and its implication in order to increase the performance over the job.
Ahmetoglu, G., Harding, X., Akhtar, R. and Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2015), вЂњPredictors of creative achievement: assessing the impact of entrepreneurial potential, perfectionism, and employee engagementвЂќ, Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 198-205.
Alfes, K., Truss, C., Soane, E.C., Rees, C. and Gatenby, M. (2013), вЂњThe relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: examining the mediating role of engagementвЂќ, Human Resource Management, Vol. 52 No. 6, pp. 839-859.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context: вЂњUpdate to the social psychology of creativityвЂќ. Boulder, CO: Westview.
Amabile, T.M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996), "Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity". Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 39,No. 5, pp. 1154-1184.
Anderson, N., PotoДЌnik, K., & Zhou, J. (2014), "Innovation and Creativity in Organizations A State-of-the-Science Review, Prospective Commentary, and Guiding Framework". Journal of Management, Vol. 40,No. 5, pp. 1297-1333.
Bakker, A.B. and Bal, M.P. (2010), вЂњWeekly work engagement and performance: a study among starting teachersвЂќ, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 1, pp. 189-206.
Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E. and Sanz-Vergel, A.I. (2014), вЂњBurnout and work engagement: the JD-R approachвЂќ, Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 389-411.
Bandura, A. (1997), вЂњSelf-EfficacyвЂќ: The Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
Barron, F. (1988). вЂњPutting creativity to workвЂќ. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Nature of creativity(pp. 76вЂ“98). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Beechler, S., & Woodward, I. (2009). вЂњThe global "war for talentвЂќ. Journal of International Management, 15, 273вЂ“285.
Benkhoff, B. (1998). вЂњA test of the HRM model: Good for employers and employeesвЂќ. Human Resource Management Journal, 7(4), 44вЂ“60.
Birkinshaw, J., & Duke, L. (2013), "EmployeeвЂђLed Innovation". Business Strategy Review, Vol. 24,No. 2, pp. 46-51.
Bitner,M.J.,Bernard,H.B.andTetreault,M.S.(1990), вЂњThe service encounter: diagnosing favorableand unfavorable incidentsвЂќ, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 No. 1, pp. 71-84.
Bougie, U. S. (2010), вЂњResearch Method for BusinessвЂќ - A Skill-Building Approch. (6th, Ed.) Journal of Business Business Research.
Breevaart, K., Bakker, A.B., Hetland, J., Demerouti, E., Olsen, O.K. and Espevik, R. (2014), вЂњDaily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engagementвЂќ, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 87 No. 1, pp. 138-157.
Boudreau, J., & Ramstad, P. (2005). вЂњTalentship, talent segmentation and sustainability: A new HR decision science paradigm for a new strategy definitionвЂќ. Human Resource Management, 44(2), 129вЂ“136.
Byrne, Z.A. (2015), вЂњUnderstanding Employee Engagement: Theory, Research, and PracticeвЂќ, Routledge, New York, NY.
Campbell, J. P., McCloy, R. A., Oppler, S. H. and Sager, C. E. (1993), вЂњA theory of performanceвЂќ, in C. W. Schmitt and W. C. A. Borman (eds), Personnel Selection in Organizations. San Francisco: JosseyBass, pp. 35-70.
Carter, W.R., Nesbit, P.L., Badham, R.J., Parker, S.K. and Sung, L.K. (2018), вЂњThe effects of employee engagement and self-efficacy on job performance: a longitudinal field studyвЂќ, The International Journal of Human Resource Management.
ДЊerne, M., Nerstad, C.L., Dysvik, A. and Е kerlavaj, M. (2014), вЂњWhat goes around comes around: knowledge hiding, perceived motivational climate, and creativityвЂќ, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 57 No. 1, pp. 172-192.
Chow, I.H.-S. (2012), "The roles of implementation and organizational culture in the HRвЂ“ performance link". The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23,No. 15, pp. 3114-3132.
Choy, J., McCormack, D., &Djurkovic, N. (2016). вЂњLeader-member exchange and job
Performance: The mediating roles of delegation and participationвЂќ. Journal of
Management Development, 35, 104вЂ“119.
Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S. and Slaughter, J.E. (2011), вЂњWork engagement: a quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performanceвЂќ, Personnel Psychology, Vol. 64 No. 1, pp. 89-136.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985), вЂњIntrinsic motivation and self-determination in human
BehaviorвЂќr. New York: Plenum.
DelVecchio, S. K. (1998). The quality of salesperson-manager relationship: The effect of latitude, loyalty and competence. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management.
Dhir, S. and Shukla, A. (2018), вЂњThe influence of personal and organisational characteristics on employee engagement and performanceвЂќ, International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy, Vol. 11 No. 2, pp. 117-131.
Dubinsky, A.J. & Mattson, B.E. (1979), вЂњConsequences of role conflict and ambiguity experienced by retail salespeopleвЂќ, Journal of Retailing, Vol. 55, Winter, pp. 70-86.
Dulebohn, J.H., Bommer, W.H., Liden, R.C., Brouer, R.L. and Ferris, G.R. (2012), вЂњA meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: integrating the past with an eye toward the futureвЂќ, Journal of Management, Vol. 38 No. 6, pp. 1715-1759
Eldor, L. (2017), вЂњLooking on the bright side: the positive role of organizational politics in the relationship between employee engagement and performance at workвЂќ, Applied Psychology, Vol. 66 No. 2, pp. 233-259.
Eldor, L. and Harpaz, I. (2016), вЂњA process model of employee engagement: the learning climate and its relationship with extra-role performance behaviorsвЂќ, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 37. 2, pp. 213-235.
Fredrickson, B.L. (2001), вЂњThe role of positive emotion in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotionsвЂќ, American Psychologist, Vol. 56 No. 3, pp. 218-226.
Ganster, D.C., & Rosen, C.C. (2013). вЂњWork Stress and Employee Health: A Multidisciplinary ReviewвЂќ. Journal of Management, 39(5), 1085вЂ“1122.
Gilson, L.L., Mathieu, J.E., Shalley, C.E. and Ruddy, T.M. (2005), вЂњCreativity and standardization: complementary or conflicting drivers of team effectiveness?вЂќ, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48 No. 3, pp. 521-531.
Graen, G. &Cashman, J. (1975), вЂњA role-making model of leadership in formal organization: a development approachвЂќ, in Hunt, J.G. and Larson, L.L. (Eds), Leadership Frontiers, Kent State University Press, Kent, OH, pp. 143-165.
Graen, G. B., Novak, M., &Sommerkamp, P. (1982). вЂњThe effects of leader-member exchange and job design on pro ductivity and satisfaction: Testing a dual attachment modelвЂќ. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 109-131.
Graen, G.B. &Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). вЂњRelationship-based approach to leadership: development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: applying a multi-level multi-domain perspectiveвЂќ, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 219-247.
Griethuijsen, R. A. L. F., Eijck, M. W., Haste, H., Brok, P. J., Skinner, N. C., Mansour, N., et al. (2014). вЂњGlobal patterns in studentsвЂ™ views of science and interest in scienceвЂќ. Research in Science Education, 45(4), 581-603.
Guthridge, M., Komm, A., & Lawson, E. (2008). вЂњMaking talent a strategic priorityвЂќ. McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 49вЂ“59.
Habeeb, S. (2019), вЂњRelation between Organisational Citizenship Behavior, Workplace Spirituality and Job Performance in BFSI sector in IndiaвЂќ, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 176вЂ“188.
Halbesleben, J., & Wheeler, A. (2008), вЂњThe Relative Roles of Engagement and Embeddedness in Predicting Job Performance and Intention to LeaveвЂќ. Work & Stress, 22, 242-256.
Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L. and Keyes, C.L. (2002), вЂњWell-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: a review of the Gallup studiesвЂќ, in Keyes, C.L. and Haidt, J. (Eds), Flourishing: вЂњThe Positive Person and The Good LifeвЂќ, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp. 205-204.
Hughes, D.J., Allan, L., Tian, A.W., Newman, A. and Legood, A. (2018), вЂњLeadership, creativity, and innovation: a critical review and practical recommendationsвЂќ, The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 29 No. 5, pp. 549-569.
Ibrahim, M. and Al Falasi, S. (2014), вЂњEmployee loyalty and engagement in UAE public sectorвЂќ, Employee Relations, Vol. 36 No. 5, pp. 562-582.
Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J.D. and Morgeson, F. (2007), вЂњLeader-member exchange and citizenship behavior: a meta-analysisвЂќ, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 92 No. 1, pp. 269-277.
Isaksen, G.S. &Ekvall, G. (2010), вЂњManaging for innovation: the two faces of tension in creative climatesвЂќ, Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 73-88.
Ismail, H.N., Iqbal, A., and Nasr, L. (2019), вЂњEmployee engagement and job performance in Lebanon: the mediating role of creativityвЂќ. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.
Jones, J. D., Fraley, R. C., Ehrlich, K. B., Stern, J. A., Lejuez, C. W., Shaver, P. R., & Cassidy, J. (2018). вЂњStability of attachment style in adolescenceвЂќ: An empirical test of alternative developmental processes. Child Development, 89(3), 871вЂ“880.
Kahn, W.A. (1990), вЂњPsychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at workвЂќ, Academy of Management, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 692-724.
Kaiser, H. F., & Rice, J. (1974). вЂњLittle jiffy, mark IVвЂќ. Educational and psychological measurement, 34(1), 111-117.
Kanfer, R. & Ackerman, P. L. (2005), вЂњWork competence: A Person-Oriented PerspectiveвЂќ, in A. J. Elliot and C. S. Dweck (eds), Handbook of Competence and Motivation. Guilford Publications, pp. 336-353.
Karatepe, O. (2011), вЂњProcedural Justice, Work Engagement, and Job OutcomesвЂќ: Evidence from Nigeria. вЂњJournal of Hospitality Marketing and ManagementвЂќ, 20(8), 855-878.
Karatepe, O.M. and Ngeche, R.N. (2012), вЂњDoes job embeddedness mediate the effect of work engagement on job outcomes? A study of hotel employees in CameroonвЂќ, Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, Vol. 21 No. 4, pp. 440-461.
Kim, W., Kolb, J.A. and Kim, T. (2013), вЂњThe relationship between work engagement and performance: a review of empirical literature and a proposed research agendaвЂќ, Human Resource Development Review, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 248-276.
Kumar, V., &Pansari, A. (2016). вЂњCompetitive advantage through engagementвЂќ. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(4), 497вЂ“514.
Liden, R.C., Sparrowe, R.T. & Wayne, S.J. (1997), вЂњLeader-member exchange theory: the past and potential for the futureвЂќ, in Ferris, G.R. (Ed.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, Vol. 15, JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 47-199.
Litchfield, R. C. (2008), вЂњBrainstorming reconsidered: A goal based viewвЂќ. Academy of Management Review, 33(3), 649вЂ“668
March, J. G. (1991), вЂњExploration and exploitation in organizational learningвЂќ. Organization Science, 2(1), 71вЂ“87.
Martinaityte. I.,& Sacramento. (2013) вЂњWhen creativity enhances sales effectiveness: The moderating role of leaderвЂ“member exchangeвЂќ. Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 7 (OCTOBER 2013), pp. 974-994.
Moen, P., Kelly, E.L., & Lam, J. (2013). Healthy Work Revisited: Do Changes in Time Strain Predict Well-Being? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 157вЂ“172.
Motowidlo, S., Borman, W., & Schmidt, N. (1997), вЂњA theory of individual differences in task and contextual performanceвЂќ. Human Performance, 10, 71-83.
Nazem F, Mohamadi M, Dokaneifard F. (2013), вЂњMonitor performance in various areas of Azad UniversityвЂќ. J New Approach Manag. Educ.; 8(3): 45-55. (Persian
Parker, S.K. and Griffin, M.A. (2011), вЂњUnderstanding active psychological states: embedding engagement in a wider nomological net and closer attention to performanceвЂќ, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 60-67.
Rich, B.L., Lepine, J.A. and Crawford, E.R. (2010), вЂњJob engagement: antecedents and effects on job performanceвЂќ. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53 No. 3, pp. 617-635.
Robbins, S. (2013), вЂњOrganizational BehaviorвЂќ. In вЂњZhurnalEksperimentalвЂ™noiiTeoreticheskoiFizikiвЂќ (15th ed. вЂ”, p. 676).
Saks, A. (2006), вЂњAntecedents and Consequences of Employee EngagementвЂќ. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.
Salanova, M., Agut, S. and PeirГі, J.M. (2005), вЂњLinking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climateвЂќ, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 90 No. 6, pp. 1217-1227.
Schaufeli, W.B. & Bakker, A.B. (2010), вЂњDefining and measuring work engagement: bringing clarity to the conceptвЂќ, in Bakker, A.B. and Leiter, M.P. (Eds), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research, Psychology Press, New York, NY, pp. 10-24.
Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. and Salanova, M. (2006), вЂњThe measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: a cross-national studyвЂќ, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 66 No. 4, pp. 701-716.
Singh, A., Singh, S.K. and Khan, S. (2016), вЂњJob characteristics model (JCM): utility and impact on working professionals in the UAEвЂќ, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 24 No. 4, pp. 692-705.
Singh, J., Verbeke, W. & Rhoads, G.K. (1996), вЂњDo organizational practices matter in role stress processes? A study of direct and moderating effects of marketing-orientated boundary spannersвЂќ, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 60 No. 3, pp. 69-96.
Slatten, T. and Mehmetoglu, M. (2011), вЂњAntecedents and effects of engaged frontline employees: a study of the hospitality industryвЂќ, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 88-107.
Sollitto, M., Martin, M. M., Dusic, S., Gibbons, K. E., &Wagenhouser, A. (2016).
вЂњAssessing the supervisor-subordinate relationship involving part-time employeesвЂќ.
International Journal of Business Communication, 53, 74вЂ“96.
Sternberg, R. J. (2001), вЂњWhat is the common thread of creativityвЂќ? Its dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. American Psychologist, 56, 360вЂ“362.
Van Scotter, J., Motowidlo, S. J., & Cross, T. C. (2000), вЂњEffects of task performance and contextual performance on systemic rewardsвЂќ. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 526вЂ“535.
Volmer, J., Niessen, C., Spurk, D., Linz, A. and Abele, A.E. (2011),вЂњReciprocal relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX) and job satisfaction: a cross-lagged analysisвЂќ, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Vol. 60 No. 4, pp. 522-545.
Wang, G. and Netemeyer, R.G. (2004), вЂњSalesperson creative performance: conceptualization, measurement, and nomological validityвЂќ, Journal of Business Research, Vol.57 No.8, pp.805-812.
Wilson, K. S., Sin, H.-P., & Conlon, D. E. (2010), вЂњWhat about the leader in leader- member exchange? The impact of resource exchanges and substitutability on the leaderвЂќ. Academy of Management Review, 35, 358-372.
Ye, J., & King, J. (2016). вЂњManaging the downside effect of a productivity orientationвЂќ.
Journal of Services Marketing, 30, 238-254.
YIN, R.K. (1994), вЂњCase study researchвЂќ: design and methods, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Zhou, J. and George, J.M. (2001), вЂњWhen job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: encouraging the expression of voiceвЂќ, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44 No. 4, pp. 682-696.