The The Roots of Radicalism: Analyzing Post-9/11 Situation in The Runaways by Fatima Bhutto


  • Dr. Humaira Ahmad National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
  • Ms. Sahar Mustafa National University of Modern Languages, Main Campus, Islamabad



This research paper presents a postcolonial critique of a post-9/11 novel, The Runaways by Fatima Bhutto. A comparative analysis of the three main characters in the novel has been made to understand the unique postcolonial experiences of each. The different backgrounds of all the characters have been explored to comprehend what led them to become terrorists.  Through this comparison it has been unveiled that religion is not the reason behind the radicalism of these characters, instead the postcolonial experiences of ‘Capitalism’, ‘Modernity’, and ‘Unhomeliness’ are the reason behind their militancy. Through this analysis, the researcher has made a broader effort to explain Bhutto’s stance of invalidating the Islamophobic beliefs prevalent in the post-9/11 West. This study is a unique effort to explain how postcolonial experiences are the root cause of radicalism. The selected novel has not been examined through this particular lens before; hence, this study is an effort to bridge this knowledge gap.

Keywords: Capitalism, Islamophobia, Modernity,  Postcolonial critique,  Post-9/11,  Radicalism,  Unhomeliness.