GLOCALIZATION OF ENGLISH: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGICAL DEVIATIONS OF SEMIVOWELS AND LIQUIDS IN PAKISTANI ENGLISH
Being a global lingua franca, English is a widely used medium of communication particularly among the educated class in Pakistan. It serves not only as one of the official languages of the country but also as a medium of instruction in the higher education sector. Over the years, it has evolved so much so that it stands as a distinctive variety of English that is identified as Pakistani English (PE). Though numerous studies have briefly focused on the phonological deviation of consonants in PE, an in-depth study is needed to analyse each consonant thoroughly. In this regard, this paper aims at exploring how PE speakers pronounce the selected English consonants, semivowels [w] and [j], and liquids [l] and [r]. For this purpose, a sample of 20 participants (10 males and 10 Females) enrolled in Masters in English linguistics and literature was selected from a public sector university in Islamabad. Each participant was provided with a list of 10 words for each phoneme and was asked to pronounce them individually. Firstly, the sessions were recorded which were then transcribed phonemically, and finally, they were analysed in comparison with the Received Pronunciation (RP) obtained from PhoTransEdit Online application. The results were illustrated in the stacked bar graph. The findings show that PE deviates from RP in all the respective English semivowels, and liquids because these phonemes were not present in their first language, Urdu. Consequently, PE speakers substitute the English phonemes with the nearest available Urdu equivalent. The study is significant because it highlights the salient features of PE in terms of its deviation from RP.
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