The Developmental Stages of Mankiyali Language: Past, Present and Future


  • Shakir Ullah Air University Islamabad
  • Uzma Anjum Assistance Professor, Department of English, Air University Islamabad, Pakistan.


The purpose of the present study is to trace the developmental stages of Mankiyali such as past (first stage), present (second stage) and future (third stage) and aims to motivate researchers for the documentation of this language. To do this, an oral corpus was created from elderly native speakers that revealed different aspects of the language. It is an endangered language, but where and how did it come to Tehsil Oghi, Mansehra District, and how will it change over time? The present paper presents its various reasons for the bad past, the developing present and the bright future. The first phase (past) refers to before 2016, the second phase (present) from 2016 to 2021, and the third phase (future) from 2021 onwards. In the first stage, it was not used in politics, music, press, media, and other prominent resources. In the second phase, a study was conducted on it in 2016 by Anjum and it got ISO 639-3 Code: nlm. After her, many researchers focused on this language such as (Anjum, 2016; Anjum, Khan and Gulzar, 2016; Ullah, Hussain & Anjum, 2020). In short, the current literature shows the status of Mankiyali and ongoing research and projects will decide its third phase (future) which will be much broader and deeper. Future research will explore the phonetics of Mankiyali leading to his writing style. Mankiyali, developmental stages, speakers, status of the language, and domains.

Keywords: Developmental stages, Domains, Endangered, Status of the language, Mankiyali,