Yasir Ahmad


The present research paper focuses on the minor class socioeconomic struggle against marginality in Mohammad Hanif’s 'Our Lady of Alice Bhatti' (2011). This qualitative research paper has taken the theoretical framework of Marxism and its consequences; socioeconomic marginality by the hegemonic aspects. The novel has raised a voice for suppressed class of society; through the central character of Alice Bhatti, a Christian in the Muslim state and lives a hard life in the French colony of Karachi. The objective of this paper is to find out the socioeconomic struggle against marginality in the backdrop of powerful structure of society. The novel Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’ (2011) by Mohammad Hanif is studied through the lens of Marxist theory to explore the marginalization of the class in the background of socioeconomics reality. This novel portrays the struggle of Alice Bhatti, her struggles against religious fundamentalism, against the bourgeoisie class in the milieu of established order of society/system but she dies at the hand of system in the final scene. The analysis unfolds the fact that forces of colonialism still exist in the form of hegemonic forces.
Keywords: Capitalism, Hegemony, Marginality, Mohammad Hanif, Sectarianism, Marxism, socioeconomic struggle.

Full Text:



Akhtar, Sumaira, et al. (2010) "Code-Switching and Identity: A Sociolinguistic Study of Hanif’s Novel Our Lady of Alice Bhatti (p. 364-71)." International Journal of English Linguistics (2020).

Altaf, M., & Shahzad, Q. A. (2019). Subaltern’s Quest for Identity and Respect: A Gramscian

Study of ?Our Lady of Alice Bhatti’. International Journal Online of Humanities, 5(6), 62–74.

Atif, M. (2016). Feminist concerns in Muhammad Hanif's Our Lady of Alice Bhatti (2011).

Gandhova Journal of Research and Social Science KPK, 1-25

Asghar, M., A, Ahmed, M. & Fatima, S. (2020). The Study of Marginalized Groups in Our Lady of Alice Bhatti and The God of Small Things. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences, 5(1), (p.204-216). doi:10.22161/ijels.51.39

Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., & Tiffin, H. (2000).Post-colonial studies: The key concepts


Belsey, C. (2013). Textual Analysis as a Research Method. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University


Eagleton, T. (2002). Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Routhledge.

Engels, K. M. (1848). The Communist Manifesto. New York: International Publisher.

Gramsci, A, (2010) Selections from the Prison book Hoare, Q & Smith, G. N. eds.

& trans. London: Lawrence and Wishart. 1971 print.

Gramsci, A, (1910-1920), the selections from the Political Book (ed.), Hanif, M.

(2011). Our Lady of Alice Bhatti. India: Random House Publishers Private Limited.

Hanif, M. (2011) Our Lady of Alice Bhatti. London: Jonathan Cape.

Paul, S., & Rai, S. K. (2018). Sexual violence and Sainthood: A critical study of Our Lady of Alice Bhatti. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities (p.121-27).10(3). doi:10.21659/rupkatha.v10n3.09

Rukan Uddin, M,. & Mohib Ullah, Md. (2011). Class conflicts in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering

Heights HORIZON ISSN 2223-0556 Number- 4, 79-94.

Spivak, G. C. (1988). Can the Subaltern Speak? Marxism and Interpretation of Culture.

Macmillan Education, 5-6



  • There are currently no refbacks.