CSR’s pattern based on GRI-G4: Insights from multinational enterprises operating in Pakistan

Maqsood Hayat, Shehzad Khan, Muhammad Faizan Malik


The aim of this study is to examine the exact pattern and structure of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within multinational enterprises (MNEs) working in Pakistan. Global reporting initiative (GRI-G4) guidelines were taken as key indicators to measure the boundaries of CSR activities and sketch the pattern of CSR disclosure (CSRD) based on economic, social and environmental dynamics. This research has observed that social disclosure comprised of almost 2/3 of the total CSRD; followed by environmental and economics. Market presence and economic performance are the most disclosed indicators in economic dimension. Environmental disclosure is leaded by products & services, overall and effluents & Waste. Water, biodiversity, compliance and transport are the least disclosed dynamics under the environmental dimension. Similarly, Social dimension records almost identical values for labor practices & decent work and product responsibility; followed by society and human rights indicators. Findings of this study reflect overall satisfactory report about CSRD for a period of 4 years (2016-2019). In general, this research study has extended basic but overall perception about the CSR structure within MNEs working in Pakistan. This study has first time developed an overall CSR’s catalog for MNEs based on content analysis which includes all dimensions and indicators expressed in GRI-G4. The results of this study are beneficial for government and other institutions/organizations that are responsible for handling, formulating and implementing sustainability related issues/strategies. The combined effects of the local institutional forces and the interpretation of universally acceptable guidelines play an important role to ensure the rights of stakeholders and compel the enterprises to be more ethical. This study offers the first CSR structure of overall G4 guidelines indicators based on wide range of corporations and included every published document over a period of 2016-2019.

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