Developing Entrepreneurial Learning curricula from a CEOs Perspective
The assertion that protracted degree programs can impede entrepreneurship learning sounds plausible, especially when we recount entrepreneurs with inimal formal qualifications. This important debate is hitherto inconclusive, yet it offers opportunity to investigate forms of learning required to become entrepreneurs in a culture obsessed with take-a-job mentality. The study aims to understand dichotomies prevalent between entrepreneurial learning undertaken at universities in comparison to the actual business practices in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A qualitative research design has been used in conjunction with 31 in-depth interviews from CEOs and analyzed through grounded methodology. The study illustrates the importance of transgenerational learning, where parents influence learning through a scaffolding process. In contrast, novice entrepreneurs rely on self-directed learning, which mostly prolong periods of emotional maturity due to trial and error approaches. A classic paradox of expectations is reported, where employers lament lack of talent, while graduates, bewail lack of job opportunities which is mainly attributed to absence of apprenticeship, except in fields of Medicine, Law and Chartered Accountancy. The study contributes by offering context specific insights from CEOs in Pakistan on how a social vacuum at the heart of industry-academia nexus, permeates, dichotomies in planned entrepreneurship learning curriculum as against actual business practices in vogue.
В В В В В В В В В В В В В
Anderson, A., & Ronteau, S. (2017). Towards an entrepreneurial theory of practice; emerging ideas for emerging economies. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 9(2), 110-120.
Abbas, S. G., Yousafzai, M. T., & Qureshi, M. I. (2015). Coping the Challenge of Change in Academe--Are we really Learning Organizations?. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 9(1).
Anderson, A. R., Drakopoulou Dodd, S., & Jack, S. L. (2012). Entrepreneurship as connecting: some implications for theorizing and practice. Management Decision, 50(5), 958-971.
Baumol, W. J., Schilling, M. A., & Wolff, E. N. (2009). The superstar inventors and entrepreneurs: How were they educated?. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 18(3), 711-728.
Bayona, S., Bustamante, J., & Saboya, N. (2018, March). PMBOK as a Reference Model for Academic Research Management. In World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (pp. 863-876). Springer, Cham.
Budd, R. (2017). Undergraduate orientations towards higher education in Germany and England:
problematizing the notion of вЂ?student as customerвЂ™. Higher Education, 73(1), 23-37.
Clark, K., & Ramachandran, I. (2019). Subsidiary entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial opportunity: An institutional perspective. Journal of International Management, 25(1), 37-50.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among
five approaches. Sage publications.
Chesbrough, H. (2010). Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers. Long range planning, 43(2-3), 354-363.
Cope, J. (2011). Entrepreneurial learning from failure: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of business venturing, 26(6), 604-623.
Driver, R., Asoko, H., Leach, J., Scott, P., & Mortimer, E. (1994). Constructing scientific knowledge in the classroom. Educational researcher, 23(7), 5-12.
Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. Education Resources Information Center ERIC
Emmer, E. T., & Evertson, C. M. (2016). Classroom management for middle and high school teachers. Pearson.
Fourie, I. (2013). Twenty-first century librarians: time for Zones of Intervention and Zones of Proximal Development?. Library Hi Tech, 31(1), 171-181.
Gaddefors, J., & Anderson, A. R. (2017). Entrepreneursheep and context: when entrepreneurship is greater than entrepreneurs. International journal of entrepreneurial behavior & research, 23(2), 267-278.
Greenwood, R., & Hinings, C. R. (1993). Understanding strategic change: The contribution of archetypes. Academy of management Journal.
Hippe, R., & Fouquet, R. (2018). The human capital transition and the role of policy (pp. 1-47). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Iqbal, T., Yousafzai, M. T., Ali, S., Sattar, K., Saleem, M. Q., Habib, U., & Khan, R. (2018). There's No Such Thing as Free Lunch but Envy among Young Facebookers. KSII Transactions on Internet & Information Systems, 12(10).
Jarvis, C., & Dickie, J. (2010). Podcasts in support of experiential п¬Ѓeld learning. Journal
of Geography in Higher Education, 34(2), 173вЂ“186.
Jackson, D. (2015). Employability skill development in work-integrated learning: Barriers and best practice. Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 350-367.
Kettunen, J. (2015). Stakeholder relationships in higher education. Tertiary Education and Management, 21(1), 56-65.
Kay, R. H., & Edwards, J. (2012). Examining the use of worked example video podcasts in middle school mathematics classrooms: Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology/La revue
canadienne de lвЂ™apprentissage et de la technologie, 38(3).
Lauterbach, U. (2008). Evaluating progress of European vocational education and training systems: indicators in education. Journal of European Industrial Training, 32(2/3), 201- 220.
Masadeh, M. (2012). Training, education, development and learning: what is the difference?. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 8(10).
McDaniel, B. A. (2000). A survey on entrepreneurship and innovation. The Social Science Journal, 37(2), 277-284.
Merhi, M. I. (2015). Factors influencing higher education students to adopt podcast: An empirical study. Computers & Education, 83, 32-43.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identiп¬Ѓcation and salience: Deп¬Ѓning the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of management review, 22(4), 853вЂ“886
Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power. Qualitative health research, 26(13), 1753-1760
Parmar, B. L., Freeman, R. E., Harrison, J. S., Wicks, A. C., Purnell, L., & De Colle, S. (2010).
Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. The academy of management annals, 4(1), 403- 445.
Rowley, J. (2012). Conducting research interviews. Management Research Review, 35(3/4), 260-271.
Rae, D., & Wang, C. L. (2015). Entrepreneurial learning: past research and future challenges. In Entrepreneurial learning(pp. 25-58). Routledge.
SchГ¶n, D. A. (2017). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. Routledge.
Service, B., Dalgic, G. E., & Thornton, K. (2016). Implications of a shadowing/mentoring programme for aspiring principals. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, 5(3), 253-271.
Shute, V. J., Ventura, M., & Ke, F. (2015). The power of play: The effects of Portal 2 and Lumosity on cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Computers & education, 80, 58-67.
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Laukkanen, M., & Niittykangas, H. (2010). Fostering entrepreneurship and sound small business? exploring start-up-advisorsвЂ™ mindsets. In British academy of management conference, entrepreneurship track, sheп¬ѓeld (Vol. 15).
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226.
Tabassi, A. A., Ramli, M., & Bakar, A. H. A. (2012). Effects of training and motivation practices on teamwork improvement and task efficiency: The case of construction firms. International journal of project management, 30(2), 213-224.
Van Rooij, S. W. (2009). Scaffolding project-based learning with the project management body of knowledge (PMBOKВ®). Computers & Education, 52(1), 210-219.
Ware, H., & Kitsantas, A. (2007). Teacher and collective efficacy beliefs as predictors of professional commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(5), 303-310.
Wlodkowski, R. J., & Ginsberg, M. B. (2017). Enhancing adult motivation to learn: A comprehensive guide for teaching all adults. John Wiley & Sons.
Yousafzai, M. T., Khan, M., & Khan, U. (2017). Positioning of Private Sector Business Schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Multidimensional Positioning Study. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 11(1).
Yousafzai, M. T. (2019). Curriculum Laden Value Creation as Stepping Stone to Link Theory-Practice Dichotomies in Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 13(1).
Yousafzai M.T, AM, S. Ahmad, (2020) Learning the entrepreneurial craft from narratives of emotional setbacks and failures of serial entrepreneurs, Journal of Managerial Sciences, 14 (3)